Chapter 24 apush terms

Chapter 24 apush terms DEFAULT

Apush Vocab Chapter 24

Transcontinental railroad

A building process that was very costly and risky. The need for military and postal needs, congress decided to give some grants to two companies. Adding railroads to small towns can make them big. After the UPR and the CPR were done, the transcontinental line, was one of america’s most impressive undertakings during peacetime

This quickly became known as Railway Time;Each railroad used its own standard time, usually based on the local time of its headquarters or most important terminus, and the railroad's train schedules were published using its own.

Second Industrial Revolution

After the war, many people turn away from the political arena and go for corporations, having more corporations’ means more jobs, meaning economic boom. Railroads help alot

Commissioned by congress after the guns of fort sumter commissioned by congress to go westward from Omaha, Nebraska

From this line, California began to make the CPR. Went east from sacramento, eastward. The men who were the financial backers were the “BIG FOUR”, Leland Stanford, an ex governor of California who had political connections, and collis p Huntington, a lobbyist

He founded Vanderbilt University in Tenn. He was a big man with little education but he established a shipping-land transit across Nicaragua after the gold rush. He built a railway that connected New York to Chicago in 1873. He offered superior service at low rates and was extremely successful

"The modern Colossus"

immigration, land also effected, mostly the area of the Louisiana purchase, settlers following the railroads plowed Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, and Nebraska. even time was effected, four timezones split America to get scheldules right and avoid wrecks and crashes.
Most importantly, it made millionaires. New aristocracy replaced the old slave holders

Introduced in 1860s, they were said to be nice hotels but were terrible and called wheeled torture chambers

Corrupt industry owners who only cared about profit, i.e. Carnegie, Cornelius Vanderbilt, etc

business partners? we'll ask pendry:]

A pool is an informal agreement between a group of people or leaders of a company to keep their prices high and to keep competition low. The Interstate Commerce Act in 1887 made railroads publicly publish their prices and it outlawed the pool

When a company has the rights to sell something and only them, like standard oil, who monopolized oil, there is no competition against a monopoy b/c they have everything

A technique used by John D. Rockefeller. Horizontal integration is an act of joining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets. It is responsible for the majority of his wealth

It was pioneered by tycoon Andrew Carnegie. It is when you combine into one organization all phases of manufacturing from mining to marketing. This makes supplies more reliable and improved efficiency. It controlled the quality of the product at all stages of production

was an American financier who became a leading American railroad developer and speculator. Although he was long vilified as an archetypal robber baron,

A trust is an economic tool devised late in the 1800's. It was pioneered by men such as Andrew Carnegie of the steel industry and John Rockefeller of the oil industry. The purpose of a trust is to eliminate competition in business. One powerful company will have control of the stocks of many smaller companies in the same line of business, creating a monopoly. The monopoly allows price-fixing and benefits all companies involved. Trusts were outlawed in the early 1900's

steel king; integrated every phase of his steel-making operation. Ships, railroads, etc. pioneered "Vertical Integration" ; his goal was to improve efficiency by making supplies more reliable controlling the quality of the product at all stages of production and eliminating the middle man

After Carnegie sold away his steel company, JP morgan took over and made this. It was america’s first billion dollar corporation. A larger sum than the total estimated wealth of the nation in 1800. Bessemer steel caused everything to go good with America <3

Rockefeller was a man who started from meager beginnings and eventually created an oil empire. In Ohio in 1870 he organized the Standard Oil Company. By 1877 he controlled 95% of all of the refineries in the United States. It achieved important economies both home and abroad by it's large scale methods of production and distribution. He also organized the trust and started the Horizontal Merger

Rockefeller’s business that monopolized the world petroleum market. Inspired trusts

Near Lake Superior, it had a lot of Iron ore. It became the cornerstone of the vast steel empire

Of 1887. probits rebates and pools and required the railroads to publish their rates openly.
Forbade unfair discrimination against shippers and outlawed charging more for a short haul than for along one over the same line. Most important, it set up the interstate commerce commission to administer and enforce the new legislation

Decreed that individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce

Putting your officers into someone else’s board of directors

He was a banker who financed the reorganization of railroads, insurance companies, and banks. He bought out Carnegie and in 1901 he started the United States Steel Corporation

Idea that “the good lord gave me my money.” That God gave them the money. Even Steel Baron Andrew Carnegie agreed that the wealthy, entrusted with society’s riches, had to prove themselves morally responsible according to a “Gospel of Wealth”
These attitudes were roadblock for social reform

refers to various ideologies based on a concept that competition among all individuals, groups, nations, or ideas drives social evolution in human societies; theory of natural selection which explains speciation in populations as the outcome of competition between individual organisms for limited resources or "survival of the fittest

Developer of the social Darwinist idea.
“millionaires are a product of natural selection. What do social classes owe each other?”

Forbade combinations in restraint of trade, without any distinction between good trusts and bad trusts. Bigness, not badness, was the sin.
Ineffective, because it had only baby teeth or no teeth at all.
Where it was effective, it curbed labor unions or labor combinations that restrained trade.

Industrialists wanted people from agricultural south to go from fields to factories. They only had little successs.
New south was an idea, an ideal that the south becomes industrialized

Editor of Atlanta constitution who tireslessly wanted ex confederates to become Georgia Yankees and outplay the north at the commercial and industrial game

Mine helpers. For hours they would sit on benches above a moving belt kicking large pieces of coal breaking the lumps to uniform size for shipment. Photographs of breaker boys became a icon for reform crusade against child labor.

You should know what this is already. However, they became annoyed by all the labor strikes and then grew deaf to the outcry of the worker

A magazine image of an independent and athletic new woman created in the 1890s became romantic ideal fo the age. For middle class women, careers often meant delayed marriages and smaller families

Most women workers toiled not for independence or for glamour but out of economic necessity.
Women’s jobs paid less even though they did the same thing as males did

EXACTLY what it sounds like. Reform against child labor didn’t really be effective until 1938

A list of bad workers and the list was sent to other employers and then they would not get hired (refered to in the jungle?)

Employers could lock their doors against rellious workers and then starve them into submission.

Iron clad agreements, once signed, you can’t join a labor union

Imported by corporations, they were strike breakers and thugs who beat up labor organizers.

“I could hire one half of the work force to kill the other half” – J. Gould

An organization of laborers, they would strike, fight for higher wages, and all that stuff

By 1872, several hundred thousand organized workers turned into 32 national unions.

A town owned by a company – it had high priced grocery stores and “easy” credit. The worker often sank into debt here.

“born in a company house, nurtured by high priced company store, and buried in a company graveyard”

Organized in 1866, it represented a giant bootstride by workers. Lasted six years, had 600,000 members, skilled unskilled and farmers though keeping with the times. It exclueded Chinese and made efforts to include women and blacks.

Black laborers build the colored national labor union but their support for the republican party and racism of white unionists prevented the two national unions from working together.

NLU called for arbitration of industrial disputes and the eight hour workday. They only won the 8 hours.

Seized torch dropped when NLU falls. They were the officially called the “Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor” lol.

It began in 1869 secretively, (like the know nothings), they had private rituals, passwords, and a special handshake. Secrecy continued until 1881.

Sought to include all workers in one big union.
- took in unskilled, skilled, men, women, blacks, whites,
- they DID NOT take “nonproducers”
o liquor dealers, professional gamblers, lawyers, bankers, and stockbrokers.
Never got into politics, focused on economic and social reform (wanted the 8 hour thing)
Part of why they were destroyed (read anarchists and haymarket), they took in unskilled labor. The unskilled labor could easiliy be replaced by strikebreaking scabs. High class craft unionists enjoyed a semimonopoly over skills.

Terence V. Powderly was an Irish-American leader of the Knights who won many strikes for the eight-hour work day. Powderly led the Knights to become a major power in gaining rights for the workers in factories. Denounced wage-slaver. Shunned socialism, wanted laborers to save enough from their wages to purchase mines, factories, railroads, and stores. They would then make a toilers utopia, because labor would own tand operate those enterprises, workers themselves would be the owner producers

Fiery mary harris “mother Jones” got her start agitating for the knights in Illinois.

American Federal of Labor

Knights of labor who were skilled. They got sick of having to help the unskilled and sought refuge in a federation of exclusively skilled craftsmen.
When a lot of skilled laborers leave the knights to go to the American federation, it dealt the nkngitsh a body blow. By 1890, the knights were down to 100,00 members and they fused with other protest groups.
Consisted of an association of self governing national unions, each of which kept independence. With the AF of L unifying the overall strategy. No individual laborer could join.
Nonpolitical organization that did not let women and blacks and unskilled come in

Labor disorders had broken out, and on may 4, 1886, the Chicago police went to a protest that was accused of brutalities. Suddenly a dynamite bomb was thrown that killed or injured several dozen people, including police.
A later John P Altgeld, a democratic liberal became governor of Illinois, pardoning the three haymarket square bombing suspects from their jail time, it demonstrated courage in opposing a “gross injustice”

Hardcore SOB’s who wanted violent overthrow of the American government.
After the haymarket square bombings, the knights of labor were associated with them and then the knights were looked at badly.

Samuel Gompers is responsible for the formation of one of the first labor unions. The American Federation of Labor worked on getting people better hours and better wages. The formation of this triggered the formation of various others that would come later

Advocated government ownership of the means of production

SOCIALIST was an American union leader, one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), as well as candidate for President of the United States as a member of the Social Democratic Party in 1900,

Womens Trade Union League

was a U.S. organization of both working class and more well-off women formed in 1903 to support the efforts of women to organize labor unions and to eliminate sweatshop conditions. The WTUL played an important role in supporting the massive strikes in the first two decades of the twentieth century that established the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union and Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and in campaigning for women's suffrage among men and women workers

U.S. v. EC Knight and Company

Congress charged that a single trust controlled 98% of refined sugar manufacturing in the US, but Court rejected case because trust was involved in manufacturing, NOT interstate commerce (which was what Congress could control), so, trust was not illegal
weakened Sherman Antitrust Act

is a business or industrial factory in which union membership (often of a specific union and no other) is a precondition to employment. It is opposed to the open shop, which does not consider union membership in hiring decisions and does not give union members preference in hiring.


APUSH Chapter 24 Vocabulary Flashcards

2144676710Building the Western RailroadMade the first millionares, improved transportation, steel rails, federal land grants02144676711Wabash, St Louis & Pacific RR Co v IllinoisSaid that states couldn't regulate commerce beyond their borders, only congress could12144676712Railroad regulationsenforced because of prices gouging; one of the first government attempts to get rid of corruption22144676713Robber BaronsRefers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price32144676714CarnegieBegan as an immigrant, he became a Steel "king" during the industrialization era. He used "vertical integration" to combine all phases of manufacturing into one organization. After he made his wealth he became a philanthropist, building schools and libraries42144676715J.P. MorganA highly successful banker who bought out Carnegie. With Carnegie's holdings and some others, he launched U.S Steel and made it the first billion-dollar corporation- "the banker's banker". Used interlocking directorates52144676716RockefellerAn American oil industrialist, investor, and philanthropist. He was the founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust62144676717TrustsFirms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly)72144676718vertical integrationPractice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution (e.g. Andrew Carnegie)82144676719horizontal integrationA technique used by John D. Rockefeller. Horizontal integration is an act of joining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets92144676720interlocking directoratesThe practice of having executives or directors from one company serve on the Board of Directors of another company. J. P. Morgan introduced this practice to eliminate banking competition in the 1890s102144676721Standard Oil Co.Standard Oil was a predominant American integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870 as an Ohio Corporation, it was the largest oil refiner in the world and operated as a major company trust and was one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations until it was broken up by the United States Supreme Court in 1911. John D. Rockefeller was a founder, chairman and major shareholder, and the company made him a billionaire and eventually the richest man in history112144676722Gospel of WealthThis was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy122144676723Social DarwinismThe application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist or capitalist expansion132144676724industrial stirrings in southSome industries relocated from New England to the South. The major reason for this was cheap labor from poor whites142144676725Haymarket SquareLabor disorders had broken out and on May 4 1886, the Chicago police advanced on a protest; alleged brutalities by the authorities. Suddenly a dynamite bomb was thrown that killed or injured dozens, including police. It is still unknown today who set off the bomb, but following the hysteria, eight anarchists (possibly innocent) were rounded up. Because they preached "incendiary doctrines," they could be charged with conspiracy. Five were sentenced to death, one of which committed suicide; the other three were given stiff prison terms. Six years later, a newly elected Illinois governor recognized this gross injustice and pardoned the three survivors. Nevertheless, the Knights of Labor were toast: they became (incorrectly )associated with anarchy and all following strike efforts failed152144676726National Labor UnionUnion organized in 1866, lasted six years and attracted 600,000 members, included skilled and unskilled labor, but usually not foreigners or women162144676727Knights of Labor(1) moderate labor organization founded in 1869 by Terence Powderly, one of the first such organizations in the US; (2) ended after the Haymarket Riot172144676728AFLA labor union formed in 1886 by Samuel Gompers in order to voice the working class (only highly skilled laborers). It fought against labor forces and debated work conditions for skilled workers. Utilized strikes182144676729Thomas EdisonAmerican inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures192144676730Laissez Faire ConservatismIf you're at the bottom, it's because you're lazy. People who are behind, tend to stay behind. Let it be. Government that governs least governs best. Introduced by Adam Smith. Advocates favor individual self-interest and competition, and oppose the taxation and regulation of commerce.202144676731Sherman Anti-Trust ActFirst federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions212144676732Interstate Commerce ActEstablished the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices22
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Chapter 24

Key Terms:
Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois: A Supreme Court decision that prohibited states from regulating the railroads because the Constitution grants Congress the power ti regulate interstate commerce. As a result, reformers turned their attention to the federal government, which now held sole power to regulate the railroad industry.
Interstate Commerce Act: Congressional legislation that established the Interstate Commerce Commission, compelled railroads to publish standard rates, and prohibited rebates and pools. Railroads quickly became adept at using the Act to achieve their own ends, but the Act gave the government an important means to regulate big business.
Vertical Integration: The practice perfected by Andrew Carnegie of controlling every step of the industrial production progress in order to increase efficiency and limit competition.
Horizontal Integration: The practice perfected by John D. Rockefeller of dominating a particular phase of the production process in order to monopolize a market, often by forming trusts an alliances with competitors.
Trust: A mechanism by which one company grants control over its operations, through ownership of its stock, to another company. The Standard Oil Company became known for this practice in the 1870s as it eliminated its competition by taking control of smaller oil companies.
Interlocking Directorates: The practice of having executives or directors from one company serve on the Board of Directors of another company. JP Morgan introduced this practice to eliminate banking competition in the 1890s.
Standard Oil Company: John D. Rockefeller's company, formed in 1870, which came to symbolize the trusts and monopolies of the Gilded Age. By 1877 Standard Oil Controlled 95% of the oil refineries in the US. It was also one of the first multinational corporations, and at times distributed more than half of the company's kerosene production outside the U.S. By the turn of the century it had become a target for trust-busting reformers, and in 1911 the Supreme Court ordered it to break up into several dozen smaller companies.
Social Darwinists: Believers in the idea, popular in the late nineteenth century, that people gained wealth by "survival of the fittest." Therefore, the wealthy had simply won by a natural competition and owed nothing to the poor, and indeed service to the poor would interfere with this organic process. Some social Darwinists also applied this theory to whole nations and races, explaining that powerful peoples were naturally endowed with gifts that allowed them to gain superiority over others. This theory provided one of the popular justifications for US imperial ventures like the Spanish-American war.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act: A law that forbade trusts or combinations in business, this was landmark legislation because it was one of the first Congressional attempts to regulate big business for the public good. At first the law was mostly used to restrain trade unions as the courts tended to side with companies in legal cases. In 1914 the Act was revised so it could more effectively be used against monopolistic corporations.
National Labor Union: The first national labor organization in US history founded in 1866 and gained 600,000 members from many parts of the workforce, although it limited the participation of Chinese, women, and blacks. The organization devoted much of its energy to fighting for an 8 hour workday before it dissolved in 1872.
Knights of Labor: The second national labor organization, organized in 1869 as a secret society and opened for public membership in 1881. The Knights were known for their efforts to organize all workers, regardless of skill level, gender, or race. After the mid 1880s their membership declined for a variety of reasons, including the Knights; participation in violent strikes and discord between skilled and unskilled members. 
Haymarket Square: A May Day rally that turned violent when someone threw a bomb into the middle of the meeting, killing several dozen people. Eight anarchists were arrested for conspiracy contributing to the disorder, although evidence linking them to the bombing was thin. Four were executed, one committed suicide, and 3 were pardoned in 1893.
American Federation of Labor: A national federation of trade unions that included only skilled workers, founded in 1886. Led by Samuel Gompers for nearly 4 decades, the AFL sought to negotiate with employers for a better kind of capitalism that rewarded workers fairly with better wages, hours, and conditions. The AFL's membership was almost entirely white and male until the middle of the 20th century.
Closed shop: A union-organizing term that refers to the practice of allowing only unionized employees to work for a particular company. The AFL became known for negotiating closed-shop agreements with employers, in which the employer would agree not to hire non-union members.
Cornelius Vanderbilt: Aggressive eastern railroad builder and consolidator who scorned the law as an obstacle to his enterprise.
Alexander Graham Bell: Former teacher of the deaf whose invention created an entire new industry.
Thomas Alva Edison: Inventive genius of industrialization who worked on devices such as the electric light, the phonograph, and the motion picture.
Andrew Carnegie: Scottish immigrant who organized a vast new industry on the principle of vertical integration.
John D. Rockefeller: Aggressive energy-industry monopolist who used tough means to build a trust based on horizontal integration.
Samuel Gompers: Organizer of a craft-union group and advocate of more wages for skilled workers.
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