Shadow translate

Shadow translate DEFAULT

Translation of shadow in Spanish:


sombra, n.

Pronunciation /ˈʃædoʊ//ˈʃadəʊ/

See Spanish definition of sombra


  • 1

    (unlit area)

    sombra feminine

    the trees cast long shadows across the roadlos árboles proyectaban su larga sombra hacia el otro lado del camino

    • he walked along keeping to the shadowscaminó sin apartarse de la sombra
    • the shadow of warla sombra de la guerra
    • the kitten was chasing its own shadowel gatito trataba de atrapar su sombra
    • to have shadows under one's eyestener ojeras
    • she had a shadow of a mustachetenía una sombra de bigote
    • to cast a long shadow over sthensombrecer algo
    • her death cast a long shadow over the festivitiessu muerte ensombreció las festividades
    • Two Senshi sat there watching some displays, their shapes casting huge shadows in the fain light from the monitors.
    • One of his favorite motifs was the mermaid whose undulating body allowed light to cast shadows over the surface.
    • The Peledrim Forest itself looked sinister and forbidding, and the trees cast long shadows in the dim light of the setting sun.
    • She was walking quite fast and her tiny slim body gave a vague shadow in the street lights.
    • A light periodically shone through the cutout shape, casting a shadow onto the glass that resembled a tower.
    • When they were pretty well out of sight, there was a bright flash of light and a large shadow was cast over the area of about a football field.
    • The glow still present, the figure turned, revolving, and the dim light cast a monstrous shadow of it on the trunk of a tree nearby.
    • Light penetrates these holes and casts thin shadows across the print surface.
    • Its multicolored lights cast different shadows on the living room floor.
    • The extra light cast eerie shadows on the glistening metal walls, not helping the sick feeling in her stomach.
    • Instead, the light cast shadows around him, encircling him passively.
    • The light diode was casting shadows though a cracked door to the bedroom.
    • Their bodies cast large shadows on the black pavement, and it appeared as the shadow was one large person.
    • Silently he observed them from the shadows of the forest's trees.
    • The sand felt gritty beneath her toes as she saw the dark shadow standing, watching the waves go out.
    • The dark shadows crept across the ground, the swirling surface trembling at their presence.
    • The silent roadway looked like a long riband of polished silver, flecked here and there by the dark arabesques of waving shadows.
    • He spun on shaky legs, relieved to see that he hadn't collapsed yet, and saw his own Mercedes still sitting under the dark shadows of the tall oak.
    • I felt very grateful for Anna's presence as we walked in the dark, our shadows projecting onto the dark road and into the fields beyond, as she expressed gratitude for mine.
    • One of the dark shadows moved and slowly came towards her.
  • 2

    • 2.1(remnant, vestige)

      sombra feminine

      • That is to say, a facsimile, a carbon copy, a wisp of a ghost of a shadow of a bagel.
      • In memory only part of experiences are seen as they really were, while others fade into a shadow of themselves.
      • Wall Street and the City would be a shadow of themselves.
      • The sickness was far progressed by that time, and the emancipated retching man that had spoken to a younger boy was only a shadow of his father.
      • By now Chopin was physically a shadow of himself; but it was not just lack of strength that made him play forte passages piano or pianissimo.
      • For your brilliance is only a shadow of what is to come.
      • She had realized then, as she realized now, that her feelings, her emotions, her very soul, were but a shadow of what they once were.
      • After ‘shedding’ his ego in favor of Socrates, after rejecting all his old friends, he is no more than a shadow of his old self, and of Socrates.
      • Jared is a great man where Anthony is but a shadow of a boy.
      • The smile was thin, only a pale shadow of what it used to be.
      • I am nothing more than a shadow of my old self, I am told.
      • But it is just a shadow of the bustling place it was from the 1860s through to 1907, when the leaders both died.
      • Clearly the combination of diet root beer and too little ice cream had produced a mediocre product, a shadow of a true root beer float.
      • Like the American cinema, the American theatre is today a pale shadow of what it used to be; this film is a reminder of what we're missing.
      • I smile at them brightly, a shadow of the girl they always wanted, and run up the stairs, excusing myself from the table.
      • He drifted by, a silent specter, a shadow of what he once had been.
      • Unfortunately, this is only a shadow of the original, and fairly or not comes off as a cheap knock-off of a classic film.
      • As the days went by, his father's condition worsened until he became merely a shadow of the great, massive man he once was.
      • Yet he remains a shadow, following behind Buddha rather than being an independent person.
      • They are already merely a shadow of the company they were.
    • 2.2(trace)

      a shadow of hopeun atisbo de esperanza

      • without the slightest shadow of (a) doubtsin la más mínima (sombra de) duda
      • My favorite haunt in London, without a shadow of a doubt!
      • But suddenly, he knew without a shadow of a doubt who this woman was.
      • The last thing she remembered seeing was the smirking face of Kyle Stratford, and she knew without a shadow of a doubt that they had been set up.
      • Without a shadow of a doubt in his mind, she was the girl for him.
      • Less than half way through the overture I know without a shadow of a doubt that I wanted to be a professional oboist.
      • She had never admitted that she was an agent before, either, even though he knew without a shadow of a doubt that she was.
      • He then proceeded to tell me that without a shadow of a doubt he should be able to get online right now or he was going to cancel his account.
      • Rebecca knew without a shadow of a doubt that she was compatible with Bryan.
      • It's a disc of the year without a shadow of a doubt, but more than that, I think it's one of the best violin records I've ever heard.
      • People who want to know the source of their fish without a shadow of a doubt might opt to catch it themselves.
      • It was the first time Shawn had felt it, and it would, without a shadow of a doubt, be the last time.
      • Well, the judge explained that what they're looking for here is somewhere between absolute certainty and just a shadow of a doubt.
      • Here's my favorite post of the month, bar none, of all the blogs, where Moby confirms his geekiness beyond a shadow of a doubt.
      • There was never a shred, never a shadow of a doubt that she had anything to do with the disappearance of Michael and Alex.
      • He felt like he should know, beyond a shadow of a doubt.
      • In all the years that Sam has known Julien, which were many by the way, she knew beyond a shadow of a doubt that the only thing that mattered to him was his video games.
      • What we can say beyond a shadow of a doubt is that regular, adequate rest is an absolute must for the active guy who's looking to keep making gains in the gym.
      • The Count is king of the keyboard, beyond a shadow of a doubt.
      • I think part of the reason I'm afraid that his family is going to freak is because I know beyond a shadow of a doubt that mine will.
      • It seemed to him that Tanaki's eyes always hid a shadow of coldness.
  • 3

    persona que sigue a algn de cerca(person, detective)

    to put a shadow on sbhacer seguir a algn

    • Being fascinated by the beauty of the park, she never noticed the shadow following her.
    • I already had a shadow and another shadow following my other shadow.
  • 4

    → Cabinet

    the shadow cabinetel gabinete fantasma / en la sombra

    • he was shadow Education Secretaryera el portavoz de la oposición para asuntos de educación

transitive verb

  • 1



    • The bright, clear light in his paintings appears like an Arts and Crafts article of faith, casting aside the heavily shadowed tonalities of the Victorians.
    • She had her hood up, shadowing her face once again, but the cloak couldn't cover her sensible attire - in fact, the same attire she always wore - since she was riding.
    • Their faces were pale, but one did not know if they had eyes or ears, for they wore a hood that shadowed their faces.
    • She walked in and sat at the bar, keeping her hood up so it shadowed her face.
    • His hood still shadowed any semblance of a face, if he had even had one to begin with.
    • I just stared at her, a blank expression shadowing my face.
    • A tall dark being stood in the pouring rain, soaking black cloak pulled tight around a wiry figure against the cold, hood pulled up and shadowing a dark face.
    • The middle of the river, shadowed by clouds, must feel so big.
    • While out together, the town is shadowed by an eclipse, lending a quiet surrealism to the dramatic proceedings.
    • Drawing his sword, the young man turned to face a figure cloaked all in black, his face shadowed by his hood.
    • His mount sat quietly atop a leather bound saddle, the cloak sagging, shadowing anything in its impenetrable layer of threads, and reaching the ground slightly.
    • The umbrella was titled over the three figures, shadowing their faces.
    • His face stared into the murky sky, shadowed by the shield.
    • Sterling pulled down the beggar's hat so that it covered his ears and shadowed his upper face before he walked back the way he came.
    • Her features were feminine, but a large cap sat on top of her head, covering her hair and shadowed her face.
    • The streets of Okinawa were shadowed by the cloak of twilight and wrapped in a thin fog.
    • They were cloaked in deep black, their faces shadowed by hoods.
    • The room was shadowed, shrouded in a curtain of darkness.
    • He cast his gaze toward the window; the thick curtains shadowed it.
    • Even with it only approaching evening, the land was shadowed and black clouds threatened rain.
  • 2


    (suspect)seguir de cerca a

    • I was shadowed last night by a couple of blacksuits.
    • ‘If they are shadowing us,’ Garcia said, ‘they'll track us to the moon.’
    • The British ships could only hope to shadow her at ever-increasing distances, rather than pursue her.
    • In my book, the strange, pale men shadowing Paul have several possible allegorical uses, but I decided early on not to push it.
    • There are a thousand other procedural union hassles - on some films, for example, the director is shadowed by a translator who repeats orders to the staff in French.
    • Suspicion has shadowed him ever since he gave up the chairmanship of his family's supermarket chain and took his government post in 1998, collecting a peerage along the way.
    • He was in a new city, in a different province, a new school, new friends, and being the 1960s he was shadowed by the stigma of being raised by a single parent.
    • This fell upon deaf ears to the Secret Service, which quickly dispatched two agents to shadow the president.
    • He shadows her for days, weeks, months - and sends all data back to corporate headquarters for analysis.
    • But an ancient Egyptian cat shadows her and infuses life into her again.
    • Steele's mission was to observe Tucker at close range, arriving as soon as he stepped out of the shower, then shadowing him until his workday ended at 10: 30 p.m.
    • Now I have a price on my head and a berserker killer shadowing me.
    • The crazy thing about her was she didn't mind having her little brother shadowing her every move.
    • They've been shadowing us ever since that explosion in Boston!
    • He believed they were shadowing him, trying to learn the details of his departure.
    • On his days off, he scrutinises the children in the playground opposite his apartment and shadows a little girl through the local park.
    • Whoever their trailer was, he was both foolhardy and not very experienced at shadowing someone across a desert.
    • The project involves shadowing each family member - husband, wife, and kids - for at least three full days.
    • Accompanied by the reluctant Alan, she begins shadowing him and tracing his movements.
    • Shin was free to fly to east Berlin for location shots - though shadowed by ever-present escorts.

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  • Sours:
    1. Indeed sulphur springs
    2. Yugioh chaos seed
    3. Ryobi paint sprayer
    4. Mass dua login
    5. Intel atom specs

    External sources (English)

    Daleko im jeszcze

    [...] choćby do Whispersin the Shadow,aleobrany kierunek [...]

    daje nadzieję, że niedługo osiągną oni poziom, który


    z czystym sumieniem pozwoli mi polecić ich kolejne dzieło słuchaczom o najbardziej wyrafinowanych gustach.

    They are far from

    [...] even Whispers in the Shadow, but the chosen direction [...]

    gives hope, that soon they will reach a level, that


    in a clear conscience will allow me to recommend their further work to listeners with the most sophisticated taste.

    Aqualand is ideally located in the centre of Poprad is a short walking distance to all major attractions, restaurants and bars and and isin the shadowof the High Tatra Mountains.

    Ski resort of Tatranska Lomnica begins in the village Tatranska Lomnica and ends up Skalnate Pleso, making it the largest ski resort with the highest elevation and with the highest top station of the cableway.

    The ShadowEconomyinEurope, 2010: Using Electronic Payment Systems to Combat the Shadow Economy [Szara [...]

    strefa w Europie w


    2010 r.: wykorzystywanie elektronicznych systemów płatności do zwalczania szarej strefy] / Friedrich Schneider, A.T. Kearney, 2010.

    The Shadow Economy in Europe, 2010: Using Electronic Payment Systems to Combat the Shadow Economy / Friedrich [...]

    Schneider, A.T. Kearney, 2010.

    W tym kontekście, a także z szerszej perspektywy, EBC zwraca również uwagę ustawodawcy polskiego na toczącą się obecnie dyskusję co do


    ewentualnej potrzeby właściwego monitorowania i nadzorowania tzw. równoległego

    [...] systemu bankowego(shadowbanking) w Europie5 .

    In this context, and from a broader perspective, the ECB also draws the Polish legislator’s


    attention to the recent discussion on the need to properly monitor and supervise the

    [...] shadow banking sector in Europe5 .

    W międzyczasie donatorzy sami będą mogli rozwinąć wspólne programowanie stosownie do pojawiających się priorytetów i cyklów


    programowania, zgodnie z zasadą

    [...] dostosowania nieformalnego (shadowalignement” – państwa o niskich [...]

    dochodach lub państwa niestabilne),


    lub do już istniejących (państwa o średnich dochodach).

    In the meantime, donors will themselves be able to develop joint programming in line with emerging


    programming priorities and cycles (shadow

    [...] alignment for low-income countries and fragile states) or existing [...]

    priorities and cycles


    (in the case of middle-income countries).

    36. wyraża zaniepokojenie w związku z faktem, że rosnąca część zasobów na Ziemi jest wykorzystywana do celów hodowli zwierząt


    gospodarskich; przypomina powyższy raport

    [...] FAO „Livestock's LongShadow zlistopada 2006 r., [...]

    w którym szacuje się, że z przemysłu


    mięsnego i hodowli zwierząt gospodarskich pochodzi 18 % ogółu emisji gazów cieplarnianych w skali światowej oraz że przyczyniają się one także do przyspieszenia wylesiania w krajach rozwijających się; wzywa Komisję do podjęcia niezbędnych działań w tym sektorze, a także do ustanowienia mechanizmów, które zachęcałyby do unikania wylesiania w ramach międzynarodowych negocjacji związanych z klimatem

    Is concerned that a growing proportion of the earth's resources are used for livestock raising; recalls the


    abovementioned FAO report

    [...] ‘Livestock's Long Shadowfrom November 2006 which estimates [...]

    that the meat industry and livestock


    raising contribute 18 % to the world's total greenhouse gas emissions, which also accelerate deforestation in developing countries; calls on the Commission to take the necessary action within this sector as well as to establish incentive mechanisms to avoid deforestation within the framework of international climate negotiations

    Innym przykładem są opłaty ponoszone przez władze publiczne, ale w oparciu o rzeczywiste zapotrzebowanie na


    daną usługę – przykład

    [...] stanowią tutaj opłaty dualne (ang.:shadowtolls) za korzystnie z autostrad, gdzie [...]

    płatności uiszczane przez


    władze wyliczane są w oparciu o liczbę samochodów korzystających z infrastruktury.

    Payments are also sometimes made by the public authority but based on actual


    usage of the service

    [...] or payment especially for the service, for example with ‘shadow tolls’ for highways [...]

    where payments are


    made by the public authority based on the number of vehicles.

    Jeżeli jednak, chcesz posunąć się dalej w grze pomiędzy światłem i cieniem w złączach paneli, Twoim wyborem jest PAROC®shadow.

    If, on the other hand, you want to bring forward the play between light and shadow in the panel joints, your choice is PAROC® shadow.

    Ponieważ finansowanie bankowe jest dostępne przede wszystkim dla firm z sektora publicznego (60% finansowania jest lokowane w firmach państwowych i organach władz lokalnych), małe przedsiębiorstwa


    muszą się uciekać do alternatywnych źródeł

    [...] finansowania, takich jak shadowbanking” (pozabankowa [...]

    działalność pożyczkowa).

    As bank financing is granted mostly to public sector companies (60% of financing allocated to stateowned


    companies and local authorities), small businesses must resort to alternative sources of

    [...] financing such as ‘shadow banking’.

    wykorzystanie różnych sposobów wykonywania płatności z tytułu wynagrodzenia, takich jak przychody z rynku, opłaty drogowe



    [...] wcześniej ustalonych stawek z gwarantowanym minimum (ang.shadowtolls), płatności w zależności od dostępności [...]

    środków i inne.


    [...] diverse payment mechanisms, such as market revenue, shadow tolls, capacity availability payments and so on.

    Spektakl rozwija się, gdy gra wchodzi w decydującą fazę a pomysłowi


    bossowie, których spotykasz na swej drodze

    [...] (skalny potwórzShadowOfTheColossus jest [...]

    jednym z gwoździ programu) ciągle rzucają gracza na kolana.

    The spectacle is increased as the game goes on and


    the inventive bosses you encounter

    [...] along the way (a Shadow Of TheColossus-esque [...]

    rock monster is a particular highlight)


    constantly keeps you on your toes.

    We wrześniu 2002 nakładem firmy fonograficznej Oskar ukazuje się singel


    "Prolog" promujący kolejny materiał grupy Grzegorza

    [...] CETI zatytułowany"ShadowOfTheAngel" (premiera [...]

    - kwiecień 2003 r.).

    In September 2002 the record company Oskar issued a singel Prolog (Prologue),


    which promoted yet another material of

    [...] Grzegorz’s group CETI called Shadow Of The Angel (which [...]

    came out in April 2003).

    To engageinsomekind ofshadowboxing when we do not know whattheproposals are [...]

    seems to me to be really quite ridiculous and a waste of our time.

    To engage in somekind of shadow boxing when wedo not know what the proposalsare [...]

    seems to me to be really quite ridiculous and a waste of our time. Tak zwany ukryty

    [...] system bankowy (ang.shadowbanking system) służył [...]

    nie tylko osiąganiu uzasadnionych celów dotyczących


    zwiększenia elastyczności, lecz także obchodzeniu regulacji ostrożnościowych. Theshadow banking system’ has served [...]

    not only to pursue legitimate aims of greater flexibility, but also to sidestep prudential rules.

    I would like to thank Parliament in advance for making a first reading agreement possible and in particular I would like to


    congratulate warmly Mr

    [...] Nassauer, Mr Muscat andthe shadowrapporteurs on the quality of their work and thank them for the extremely constructive spiritinwhich they have [...]

    produced their report.

    I would like to thank Parliament in advance for making a first reading agreement possible and in particular I would like to


    congratulate warmly Mr

    [...] Nassauer, Mr Muscat and the shadow rapporteurs onthe quality of their work and thank them for the extremely constructive spirit in which theyhave produced [...]

    their report.


    [...] taka nazywana jest czasemshadowaccounting.

    This practice is

    [...] sometimes described asshadow accounting’.

    Kolejne utwory, począwszy od żywiołowego Back on Track, poprzez

    [...] niezwykle dynamicznyShadow,kcząc na odrobinę [...]

    niepokojąco kiczowatym "Apollo (live


    on your tv)", coraz bardziej potęgowały intensywność uczuć, których ferworem przesiąknięte było powietrze w klubie, wyzwalając jednocześnie coraz większe pokłady energii u wszystkich tam obecnych.

    Subsequent tracks, starting from


    truly energetic Back on Track, through

    [...] inordinately dynamic Shadow, to a bit disturbingly [...]

    tacky "Apollo (live on your tv)",


    were gradually deepening the intensification of feelings, which totally soaked through the atmosphere at the club, simultanously liberating immense supplies of energy of every person participating in the event.

    Zainteresowane osoby proszone są o


    przekazywanie swoich uwag do dnia 1 czerwca 2012 r. na następujący adres

    [...] e-mail: markt-consultation-shadow-bank[email protected]

    Stakeholders are invited to send their comments before 1 June 2012 to the following email

    [...] address: markt-consultation-shadow-banki[email protected]

    Do wciąż powiększającej się biblioteki tytułów na PS 2

    [...] dołączyły gryShadowoftheColossus, Black [...]

    i Tomb Raider Legend . Gra Guitar Hero zaoferowała


    całkowicie nowy sposób spędzania czasu w gronie znajomych dzięki rewolucyjnemu akcesorium w postaci gitary, a na PSP ukazały się po raz pierwszy uwielbiane serie The Sims, Medal of Honor, Splinter Cell, Gitaroo Man i Killzone .

    Shadow of the Colossus, Black and Tomb Raider [...]

    Legend joined the ever expanding PS2 library, Guitar Hero introduced a new


    way to have fun with your friends thanks to the revolutionary guitar peripheral, and, on PSP, much loved series such as The Sims, Medal of Honor, Splinter Cell, Gitaroo Man and Killzone all appeared on the system for the first time.

    I wholeheartedly thank Mr Chichester, chairman of the Committee


    on Industry, Research and Energy, the

    [...] rapporteur, Mr Buzek,the shadowrapporteurs and [...]

    all other Members of Parliament who made this possible.

    I wholeheartedly thank Mr Chichester,


    chairman of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy, the

    [...] rapporteur, Mr Buzek, the shadow rapporteursand all [...]

    other Members of Parliament who made this possible.

    41. odnotowuje liczne propozycje składane w UE mające na celu


    uzupełnienie systemu ostrożnościowego, zarządzanie kryzysowe i regulowanie ukrytego sektora

    [...] bankowego (and.shadowbanking sektor)

    Notes the number of proposals in the EU to complete the prudential arrangements, to manage the crisis and to

    [...] regulate the shadow banking sector


    [...] listwy wewnętrzneShadowze szczotkowanego aluminium [...]

    to standard dynamicznej stylistyki, a opcjonalne czarne


    listwy skórzane o fakturze włókna węglowego, z czerwonobrązowego słojowanego eukaliptusa czy w kolorze fortepianowej czerni stanowią sportowy i ekskluzywny akcent wnętrza.

    The standard

    [...] brushed Aluminium Shadow interior trim strips [...]

    set standards in dynamic design while the optional Carbon structure


    black leather, Figured Eucalyptus Red Brown or Piano Finish Black options add exclusive accents to the cockpit.

    Wszelkie dochody spółki koncesyjnej realizowane są poprzez system

    [...] „opłat zastępczych(shadowtolling) oraz/lub umowy [...]

    o udostępnienie (availability agreement)


    podpisywane z rządem brytyjskim.

    All income to the concession

    [...] company is made through Shadow Tolling and/or Availability [...]

    agreements with the UK Government


    and there is no direct charging to the user.

    Pawlaczyk P., Kepel A, Jaros R.,


    Dzięciołowski R., Wylegała P., Szubert A., Sidło P. O., Propozycja optymalnej sieci obszarów

    [...] Natura 2000 w Polsce - ShadowList”.

    Pawlaczyk P., Kepel A, Jaros R., Dzięciołowski


    R., Wylegała P., Szubert A., Sidło P. O., Proposal for the optimum network of Natura

    [...] 2000 areas in Poland –Shadow List.

    Provide shopkeepers with an information pack for staff so they know how to run the scheme, reward

    [...] customers and promotethecampaignin theshop.

    Provide shopkeepers with an information pack for staff so they know how to run the scheme, reward

    [...] customers and promote the campaign in the shop.

    Począwszy od skórzanej kierownicy wielofunkcyjnej M z przeszyciami w kolorystyce M aż po


    specjalne sportowe fotele M czy listwy

    [...] wewnętrzne TitaniumShadow każdy szczegół [...]

    jest wyrazem luksusu i sportowego rodowodu BMW serii M.

    From the leather-trimmed M multifunction steering wheel with stitching in M colours to the


    special M sports seats or the Titanium

    [...] Shadow interior trim, every detail reflects the [...]

    exclusivity and sporting pedigree that define BMW M.

    Następnie rozświetl okolice oczu

    [...] nakładając cień do powiek Wear EyeShadowolekkim neutralnym odcieniu na dolnej [...]

    powiece i wewnętrznej okolicy oka.

    Next illuminate the

    [...] eye area by sweeping a light neutral shade of Eye Studio Eye Shadow onto the lower [...]

    lid and near your


    inner eye area alongside the bridge of your nose.

    If the Insured interrupts his/her trip due to a covered accident or


    sickness, but his/her state of

    [...] health does not,in theopinion of the Travel assistance provider, require his/her transportation according to these provisions, and the trip scheduled has not ended, the Travel assistance provider will pay the trip costs for the Insured and members of his/her family or an unrelated person pursuant to the same particular terms and conditions as the Insured and travelling with him/her, up totheamount shownin theSummary of Coverages” [...]

    and up to the


    limit of the cost of a return home, to enable them to resume the trip interrupted.

    If the Insured interrupts his/her trip due to a covered accident or sickness,


    but his/her state of

    [...] health does not, in the opinionof the Travel assistance provider, require his/her transportation according to these provisions, and the trip scheduled has not ended, the Travel assistance provider will pay the trip costs for the Insured and members of his/her family or an unrelated person pursuant to the same particular terms and conditions as the Insured and travelling with him/her, up to the amount shown in the Summary of Coverage’s” [...]

    and up to the


    limit of the cost of a return home, to enable them to resume the trip interrupted.

    Current and deferred tax are recognised as an

    [...] expense or incomeinprofit or loss, except when they relate to items that are recognised outside profit or loss (whether in other comprehensive income or directlyinequity),inwhich casethetax is also recognised [...]

    outside profit


    or loss, or where they arise from the initial accounting for a business combination.

    Current and deferred tax are recognised as

    [...] an expense or income in profit or loss, except when they relate to items that are recognised outside profit or loss (whether in other comprehensive income or directly in equity), in which casethe tax is [...]

    also recognised outside


    profit or loss, or where they arise from the initial accounting for a business combination.

    BTS SUGA Interlude : Shadow (Full Length Edition) Lyrics [Color Coded Lyrics/Han/Rom/Eng/가사]


    As of CakePHP 4.0 the ability to use shadow tables for storing translated content is available through core's behavior itself. Check the CakePHP manual for more details.

    Build StatusCoverage StatusTotal DownloadsLicense

    This plugin uses a shadow table for translated content, instead of the core's more flexible (but also potentially quite inefficient) EAV-style translate behavior. The shadow translate behavior is designed to have the same API as the core's translate behavior making it a drop-in replacement in terms of usage.


    First install the plugin for your app using composer:

    Load the plugin by adding following statement to your app's :


    The shadow translate behavior expects each table to have its own translation table. Taking the blog tutorial as a start point, the following table would already exist:


    To prepare for using the shadow translate behavior, the following table would be created:

    CREATETABLEposts_translations ( id INT UNSIGNED, locale VARCHAR(5), title VARCHAR(50) DEFAULT NULL, body TEXT DEFAULT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (id, locale) );

    Note that the id is the same type as the posts table - but the primary key is a compound key using both id and locale.

    Usage is very similar to the core's behavior so e.g.:

    classPostsTableextendsTable { publicfunctioninitialize(array$config) { $this->addBehavior('ShadowTranslate.ShadowTranslate'); } }

    You can specify the fields in the translation table - but if you don't they are derived from the translation table schema. From this point forward, see the documentation for the core translate behavior, the shadow translate behavior should act the same, and if it doesn't, well, see below.

    Why use Shadow Translate

    The standard translate behavior uses an EAV style translations table, and one join per field. By default all translations are stored in the same translation table. To give an example, the core translation behavior generates sql of the form:

    SELECT posts.*, posts_title_translations.title, posts_title_translations.content, etc. FROM posts LEFT JOIN i18n as posts_title_translations ON ( posts_title_translations.locale="xx"ANDposts_title_translations.model="Posts"ANDposts_title_translations.foreign_key=posts.idANDposts_title_translations.field='title' ) LEFT JOIN i18n as posts_body_translations ON ( posts_body_translations.locale="xx"ANDposts_body_translations.model="Posts"ANDposts_body_translations.foreign_key=posts.idANDposts_body_translations.field='body' ) etc.

    There is very little setup for the core translate behavior, but the cost for no-setup is sql complexity, and it is more complex for each translated field. Depending on how much data there is being translated - it's quite possible for this data structure to cause slow queries; it also complicates finding records by translated field values.

    Key points:

    • Easy to setup
    • All translated content stored in the same table
    • One join per translated field when querying
    • Less efficient queries - more joins and one index for all content
    • Harder to find by translated content

    By contrast, the shadow translate behavior does not use an EAV style translation table, the translations are stored in a copy of the main data table. This permits much less complex sql at the cost of having some setup steps per table. The shadow translate behavior generates sql of the form:

    SELECT posts.*, posts_translations.*FROM posts LEFT JOIN posts_translations ON ( posts_translations.locale="xx" ) // no etc.

    Key points:

    • (Slightly) more work to setup
    • Translated content is stored in a copy of the main data table
    • One join per translated table
    • More efficient queries - less joins and indexes per translated field are possible
    • Easier to find by translated content


    The initial release is only the behavior, it is planned for the future to add:

    • A shell to create shadow tables (migration based)
    • A shell to import from the core's i18n table
    • A shell to export to the core's i18n table


    Most likely!

    If you happen to stumble upon a bug, please feel free to create a pull request with a fix (optionally with a test), and a description of the bug and how it was resolved.

    You can also create an issue with a description to raise awareness of the bug.

    Support / Questions

    If you have a problem, if no one else can help, and if you can find them, maybe you can find help on IRC in the #FriendsOfCake channel.


    Translate shadow



    The Translate behavior allows you to create and retrieve translated copies of your entities in multiple languages.


    The TranslateBehavior does not support composite primary keys at this point in time.

    Translation Strategies¶

    The behavior offers two strategies for how the translations are stored.

    1. Eav Strategy: This strategy uses a table where it stores the translation for each of the fields of any given Table object that it’s bound to. This is currently the default strategy used by the behavior.

    2. Shadow table Strategy: This strategy use a separate “shadow table” for each Table object to store translation of all translated fields of that table.

    Eav Strategy¶

    In order to use the Eav strategy, you need to create a table with the correct schema. Currently the only way of loading the table is by manually running the following SQL script in your database:


    The schema is also available as sql file in /config/schema/i18n.sql.

    A note on language abbreviations: The Translate Behavior doesn’t impose any restrictions on the language identifier, the possible values are only restricted by the column type/size. is defined as in case you want to use abbreviations like (Spanish for Latin America, language abbreviation with area code UN M.49).


    It’s wise to use the same language abbreviations as required for Internationalization and Localization. Thus you are consistent and switching the language works identical for both, the and .

    So it’s recommended to use either the two letter ISO code of the language like , , or the full locale name such as , , which contains both the language and the country where it is spoken.

    Shadow Table Strategy¶

    Let’s assume we have an table and we want it’s and fields to be translated. For that we create a shadow table :


    So basically the shadow table needs and columns which together form the primary key and other columns with same name as primary table which need to be translated.

    Attaching the Translate Behavior to Your Tables¶

    Attaching the behavior can be done in the method in your Table class:

    classArticlesTableextendsTable{publicfunctioninitialize(array$config):void{// By default Eav strategy will be used.->addBehavior('Translate',['fields'=>['title','body']]);}}

    The first thing to note is that you are required to pass the key in the configuration array. This list of fields is needed to tell the behavior what columns will be able to store translations.

    If you want to use the shadow table strategy then you can configure the behavior as:


    For shadow table strategy specifying the key is optional as the behavior can infer the fields from the shadow table columns.

    By default the locale specified in config is used as default locale for the . You can override that by setting config of the behavior:


    Quick tour¶

    Regardless of the datastructure strategy you choose the behavior provides the same API to manage translations.

    Now, select a language to be used for retrieving entities by changing the application language, which will affect all translations:

    // In a controller. Change the locale, e.g. to SpanishI18n::setLocale('es');->loadModel('Articles');

    Then, get an existing entity:

    $article=->Articles->get(12);echo$article->title;// Echoes 'A title', not translated yet

    Next, translate your entity:

    $article->title='Un Artículo';->Articles->save($article);

    You can try now getting your entity again:

    $article=->Articles->get(12);echo$article->title;// Echoes 'Un Artículo', yay piece of cake!

    Working with multiple translations can be done by using a special trait in your Entity class:


    Now you can find all translations for a single entity:

    $article=->Articles->find('translations')->first();echo$article->translation('es')->title;// 'Un Artículo'echo$article->translation('en')->title;// 'An Article';

    And save multiple translations at once:

    $article->translation('es')->title='Otro Título';$article->translation('fr')->title='Un autre Titre';->Articles->save($article);

    If you want to go deeper on how it works or how to tune the behavior for your needs, keep on reading the rest of this chapter.

    Using a Separate Translations Table for Eav strategy¶

    If you wish to use a table other than for translating a particular repository, you can specify the name of the table class name for your custom table in the behavior’s configuration. This is common when you have multiple tables to translate and you want a cleaner separation of the data that is stored for each different table:


    You need to make sure that any custom table you use has the columns , , and .

    Reading Translated Content¶

    As shown above you can use the method to choose the active translation for entities that are loaded:

    // Load I18n core functions at the beginning of your Controller:useCake\I18n\I18n;// Then you can change the language in your action:I18n::setLocale('es');->loadModel('Articles');// All entities in results will contain spanish translation$results=->Articles->find()->all();

    This method works with any finder in your tables. For example, you can use TranslateBehavior with :

    I18n::setLocale('es');$data=->Articles->find('list')->toArray();// Data will contain[1=>'Mi primer artículo',2=>'El segundo artículo',15=>'Otro articulo'...]// Change the locale to french for a single find call$data=->Articles->find('list',['locale'=>'fr'])->toArray();

    New in version 4.1.0: The option was added in 4.1.0

    Retrieve All Translations For An Entity¶

    When building interfaces for updating translated content, it is often helpful to show one or more translation(s) at the same time. You can use the finder for this:

    // Find the first article with all corresponding translations$article=->Articles->find('translations')->first();

    In the example above you will get a list of entities back that have a property set. This property will contain a list of translation data entities. For example the following properties would be accessible:

    // Outputs 'en'echo$article->_translations['en']->locale;// Outputs 'title'echo$article->_translations['en']->field;// Outputs 'My awesome post!'echo$article->_translations['en']->body;

    A more elegant way for dealing with this data is by adding a trait to the entity class that is used for your table:


    This trait contains a single method called , which lets you access or create new translation entities on the fly:

    // Outputs 'title'echo$article->translation('en')->title;// Adds a new translation data entity to the article$article->translation('de')->title='Wunderbar';

    Limiting the Translations to be Retrieved¶

    You can limit the languages that are fetched from the database for a particular set of records:


    Preventing Retrieval of Empty Translations¶

    Translation records can contain any string, if a record has been translated and stored as an empty string (‘’) the translate behavior will take and use this to overwrite the original field value.

    If this is undesired, you can ignore translations which are empty using the config key:


    The above would only load translated data that had content.

    Retrieving All Translations For Associations¶

    It is also possible to find translations for any association in a single find operation:

    $article=->Articles->find('translations')->contain(['Categories'=>function($query){return$query->find('translations');}])->first();// Outputs 'Programación'echo$article->categories[0]->translation('es')->name;

    This assumes that has the TranslateBehavior attached to it. It simply uses the query builder function for the clause to use the custom finder in the association.

    Retrieving one language without using I18n::setLocale¶

    calling changes the default locale for all translated finds, there may be times you wish to retrieve translated content without modifying the application’s state. For these scenarios use the behavior’s method:

    I18n::setLocale('en');// reset for illustration->loadModel('Articles');// specific locale.->Articles->setLocale('es');$article=->Articles->get(12);echo$article->title;// Echoes 'Un Artículo', yay piece of cake!

    Note that this only changes the locale of the Articles table, it would not affect the language of associated data. To affect associated data it’s necessary to call the method on each table, for example:

    I18n::setLocale('en');// reset for illustration->loadModel('Articles');->Articles->setLocale('es');->Articles->Categories->setLocale('es');$data=->Articles->find('all',['contain'=>['Categories']]);

    This example also assumes that has the TranslateBehavior attached to it.

    Querying Translated Fields¶

    TranslateBehavior does not substitute find conditions by default. You need to use method to compose find conditions on translated fields:

    ->Articles->setLocale('es');$query=->Articles->find()->where([->Articles->translationField('title')=>'Otro Título']);

    Saving in Another Language¶

    The philosophy behind the TranslateBehavior is that you have an entity representing the default language, and multiple translations that can override certain fields in such entity. Keeping this in mind, you can intuitively save translations for any given entity. For example, given the following setup:

    // in src/Model/Table/ArticlesTable.phpclassArticlesTableextendsTable{publicfunctioninitialize(array$config):void{->addBehavior('Translate',['fields'=>['title','body']]);}}// in src/Model/Entity/Article.phpclassArticleextendsEntity{useTranslateTrait;}// In a Controller->loadModel('Articles');$article=newArticle(['title'=>'My First Article','body'=>'This is the content','footnote'=>'Some afterwords']);->Articles->save($article);

    So, after you save your first article, you can now save a translation for it, there are a couple ways to do it. The first one is setting the language directly into the entity:

    $article->_locale='es';$article->title='Mi primer Artículo';->Articles->save($article);

    After the entity has been saved, the translated field will be persisted as well, one thing to note is that values from the default language that were not overridden will be preserved:

    // Outputs 'This is the content'echo$article->body;// Outputs 'Mi primer Artículo'echo$article->title;

    Once you override the value, the translation for that field will be saved and can be retrieved as usual:

    $article->body='El contendio';->Articles->save($article);

    The second way to use for saving entities in another language is to set the default language directly to the table:

    $article->title='Mi Primer Artículo';->Articles->setLocale('es');->Articles->save($article);

    Setting the language directly in the table is useful when you need to both retrieve and save entities for the same language or when you need to save multiple entities at once.

    Saving Multiple Translations¶

    It is a common requirement to be able to add or edit multiple translations to any database record at the same time. This can be done using the :


    Now, You can populate translations before saving them:

    $translations=['fr'=>['title'=>"Un article"],'es'=>['title'=>'Un artículo']];foreach($translationsas$lang=>$data){$article->translation($lang)->set($data,['guard'=>false]);}->Articles->save($article);

    And create form controls for your translated fields:

    // In a view template.<?=->Form->create($article);?><fieldset> <legend>French</legend><?=->Form->control('');?><?=->Form->control('');?></fieldset><fieldset> <legend>Spanish</legend><?=->Form->control('');?><?=->Form->control('');?></fieldset>

    In your controller, you can marshal the data as normal:


    This will result in your article, the french and spanish translations all being persisted. You’ll need to remember to add into the fields of your entity as well.

    Validating Translated Entities¶

    When attaching to a model, you can define the validator that should be used when translation records are created/modified by the behavior during or :


    The above will use the validator created by to validated translated entities.

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